Tutorial on Fortran 90

Technical Information, Version 2.3

Bo Einarsson
National Supercomputer Centre
Linköping university
Tel + 46 13 281432
Fax + 46 13 282535
Email boein@nsc.liu.se


This version of the tutorial on Fortran 90 can be used on UNIX, Windows 3.1, Windows 95, and Apple Macintosh. It has only relative links for all files which are direct part of the tutorial, and uses absolute links only for external Web-pages.

The reason is that it should be possible to use the book without any telephone or network connection.

Web-readers at local use

The Web-readers discussed below all have the property that they can be used locally (stand alone), if Winsocket has been installed. An alternative is to instal a "dummy" version of Winsocket, which does nothing.

When I wish to use the system locally I just disconnect the electric power to my external modem. If I am already running Web on the net, I close the connection with closing the supervising program, usually trumpet.

Files in HTML on PC under MS-DOS are supposed to end with .htm, but most Web-browsers also permit call of files using the usual UNIX-extension .html. The addresses have therefore not been changed from the previous UNIX version in this respect.

Since we use a few short program examples and data files in the package we recommend the user to put the following file extensions: .dat .f .f90 .p .txt (and no extension) to be displayed as text in the Web-browser.

NCSA Mosaic 2.0 for Microsoft Windows 3.1

This Web-reader had in a previous version the property that it could be used locally (stand alone), even if no Winsocket had been installed, and was therefore very suitable. With the next version of Mosaic a "null" Winsocket will be provided.

The system has a few differences compared with on a UNIX-system:

  1. It is more critical with respect to national characters given with for example ä for ä. The semicolon is now compulsory. This is of course no major problem with this English version.
  2. I have not found any satisfactory solution on how to write a typewriter or teletype or Courier font for the Fortran-words in the text. The default setting <tt> gives italic instead of courier.

    For a complete paragraph, however, it works fine with <pre>.

    I recommend the following setting of the fonts:

    1. Go into Options
    2. Select Preferences
    3. Select Fonts
    4. Double click on Defaults
    5. Double click on Teletype Font (at the bottom)
    6. Click on Change
    7. Select Times New Roman, Normal and the same size as for normal text (for example 12) and select Color, for example Dark Red.
    8. Confirm
    The reason for chosing another color (than the usual black) is that I found another problem with <tt> in Mosaic, a blank character after courier just disappears, if I do not violate the HTML-language by writing the following blank character within the teletype code in which case it looks fine. In the English version I have tried to do this everywhere. Where I have missed the color will help!

    To switch color improves the readability, but it is not very beautiful.

    If you chose the font Courier New, which is a nice teletype font, some lines will be messed up, some words will be overwritten.

    All suggestions for a better solution are welcome. One good solution is to use Netscape!

NCSA Mosaic 2.1 for Microsoft Windows 3.1

In addition to the problems discussed above a completely new and rather serious problem appears with this revision. When I start Mosaic for local use, and do not have the modem turned on, the Window system gives the following message: "SYSTEM ERROR, CAN NOT WRITE ON UNIT AUX" and it gives the two alternatives "ABORT" and "TRY AGAIN". If I click on "ABORT" the Mosaic system starts correctly!

The reason for this problem is probably that the revised Mosaic tests for World Wide connection, before starting.

With the modem turned on, the revised Mosaic works well.

A work-around is available. Add the following two lines to the windows\system.ini file:


An additional problem is that the system crashes (has to be rebooted) if you, while without a network connection, click on an external link.

All these problems also apply to NCSA Mosaic 2.1.1. The problem with having to reboot after an attempt to connect to an external link in local mode has however been solved. If you wait for a while you will get the error message "HTAccess: Error accessing". If you then click on OK you can proceeed.

Netscape Navigator 2.0 for Microsoft Windows 3.1

The teletype font works fine. Everything works fine also on UNIX.

Netscape Navigator 2.0 for the Russian version of Microsoft Windows 95

There is a problem with the Swedish characters, which appear as Russian characters, because the wrong fonts are being used. This is not a major problem with the English version of the tutorial.

The blank character after & in columns 3 and 4 is put there in order to prevent Mosaic from converting into Swedish characters as in column 1.

Swedish charactersDescriptionCodeName
ÅA with 1 circle& #197& Aring;
ÄA with 2 dots& #196& Auml;
ÖO with 2 dots& #214& Ouml;
åa with 1 circle& #229& aring;
äa with 2 dots& #228& auml;
öo with 2 dots& #246& ouml;

Other charactersDescriptionCodeNameUsage
ÉE with accent& #201& Eacute;French character
ÜU with 2 dots& #220& Uuml;German character
ØO with slash& #216& Oslash;Danish character
ée with accent& #233& eacute;French character
üu with 2 dots& #252& uuml;German character
©C in a circle& #169& copy;Copyright

Microsoft Internet Explorer for Microsoft Windows 3.1

This Web-browser works fine in both version 2.01 and 2.1.

Netscape Navigator Gold

This Web-browser (in version 3.0b6 for UNIX) works fine.

IBM Web Explorer using OS/2 Warp 3

This works fine. At local installation it is recommended to unpack the ZIP-file with Unzip from Info-Zip.

New and revised routines

This is a list of all new and revised routines from that version 2.0 was distributed.

alpha.html	1996-03-09	New (Digital UNIX)
a4.html		1996-03-30	Minor update
epsilon.f90	1996-03-09	New
random.f90	1996-03-23	New
sum.f90		1996-03-09	New

parasoft.html	Removed
parasoft.txt	Removed
All these changes are included in version 2.1.

This is a list of all new and revised routines from that version 2.1 was distributed.

asa.html   	1997-09-12	Minor update
a10.html	1997-01-31	Minor update
a12.html	1997-09-19	New
a13.html	1997-09-19	New
c5.html		1997-02-03	Minor update
bo.html		1996-06-06	Minor update
index.html	1996-08-12	New (extra start page)
preface.html	1997-09-19	Minor update
yurij.html	1996-09-11	Minor update

makefile	1997-06-26	Minor revision
tpk90.f		New		TPK procedure in Fortran 90
intv.f90	New		interval.f90
intv_ari.f90	New		interval_arithmetics.f90

authors.gif	New		The authors
ecfin32.gif	New		LookSmart
flag_sve.gif	New		Swedish flag of the same size 
				as the British and the Russian.
All these changes are included in version 2.2.

This is a list of all new and revised routines from that version 2.2 was distributed.

a2.html		1999-08-17	Minor correction
a3.html		1998-04-17	Minor correction
a8.html		1998-09-10	Minor update
a9.html		1999-04-06	Minor update
c1.html		1999-04-06	Minor spelling corrections
c2.html		1999-04-06	Minor spelling corrections
c3.html		1999-04-06	Minor spelling corrections
c4.html		1999-04-06	Minor spelling corrections
c6.html		1999-04-06	Minor spelling corrections
c7.html		1999-04-06	Minor spelling corrections
c8.html		1999-04-06	Minor spelling corrections
c9.html		1999-04-06	Minor spelling corrections
c10.html	1999-04-06	Minor spelling corrections
c11.html	1999-04-06	Minor spelling corrections
c12.html	1998-09-07	Minor update
intro.html	1998-03-09	Minor update
tpkf.F		1997-09-26	TPK procedure in F
				(New extension .F)
readme.txt	1999-08-24

All these changes are included in version 2.3.

This is a list of all new and revised routines from that version 2.3 was distributed.

a5.html		   1999-11-25	Minor correction
a6.html		   2001-08-28	Minor update
a7.html		   2001-08-20	Minor update 
a11.html	   2001-12-12	Major update
absoft.html	   2000-06-27	Minor update
answers.html	   2001-12-11	Minor update
c15.html	   2000-08-31	Minor update
cray.html	   2000-06-27	Minor update
digital.html	   2001-08-20	Minor update
f77to90.html	   2001-12-07	Minor update
f95.html	   2001-08-30	Minor update
fortran.html	   2001-11-30	Minor update
nag.html	   2000-07-06	Minor update
nas.html	   2000-06-27	Minor update
pacific.html       2000-06-27	Minor update
references.html	   2001-08-21	Minor update
sgi.html           2000-06-29	New
sun.html	   2001-06-07	Minor update

code/lab2_e.f90	   2000-06-28   New
code/kahan2.f90	   2001-06-07   New
code/kahan4.f90	   2001-06-07   New
code/solve.f90	   2001-12-11   Slight revision
code/solve1.f90	   2001-12-11   Slight revision
gifs/img*.gif	   2001-05-23   New
gifs/img4.gif	   2001-09-03   Corrected
gifs/ecfin48.gif   2001-12-07   New
gifs/links2go.gif  2001-12-07   New
gifs/sw_award.gif  2001-12-07   New

pc_e.html	   2001-12-12


The tutorial is now available as a single compressed ZIP-file or a tar-file.

Main page, with links to all other pages is f77to90.html. Pictures are in the subdirectory gifs and source code in the subdirectory code. The chapters are c(digit).html and the appendices are a(digit).html. All other document names are self explanatory, except fortran.html, which includes external links to other Fortran documents.

From a compressed ZIP-file

You can obtain the tutorial as a compressed ZIP-file using anonymous ftp from the computer ftp.nsc.liu.se on the file pub/bibliotek/f77to90.zip.

On your computer you put the file f77to90.zip on the directory where you wish the subdirectory f77to90 to be created. There you give the command pkunzip -d f77to90.zip on MS-DOS and unzip f77to90.zip on UNIX. You then get the files installed on one directory with the HTML-files, one subdirectory gifs with pictures and one subdirectory code with the source code.

Under Windows 95 you have to use the program WinZip for Windows 95 in order to manage the long filenames. On Macintosh you unpack with the program Zipit, with the alternative "conversion to PC-files" switched off.

You can now also obtain the tutorial as a self-extracting file under Windows 95 using anonymous ftp from the computer ftp.nsc.liu.se on the file pub/bibliotek/f77to90.exe.

From a compressed tar-file

You can obtain the tutorial as a compressed tar-file using anonymous ftp from the computer ftp.nsc.liu.se on the file pub/bibliotek/f77to90.tar.Z.

If you have received the file on an MS-DOS diskette from me I name the file F7TO9TAR.Z. On your computer you put this file (with the new name f77to90.tar.Z) on the directory where you wish the subdirectory f77to90 to be created. There you give the commands uncompress f77to90.tar.Z followed with tar xvf f77to90.tar on UNIX. You then get the files installed on one directory with the HTML-files, one subdirectory gifs with pictures and one subdirectory code with the source code.


Updates are available from http://www.nsc.liu.se/~boein/f77to90/pc_e.html. You are very welcome to contact Bo Einarsson for information!
Last modified: 12 December 2001